Sunday, November 5, 2017

Sodium Carbonate

Soda is the collective name for several forms of sodium carbonate. The most commercially important form is the dehydrated product soda ash (Na2CO3). The decahydrate (Na2CO3.10 H2O) is also known as washing soda or sal soda. Soda ash is so called because it was once extracted from plant ashes; now almost all is manufactured by the Solvay or ammonia soda process. The primary users of soda are the glass and chemical industries. Sodium carbonate occurs in nature in combination with the bicarbonate as trona and is recovered from evaporated lakes in California. Baking soda (sodium bicarbonate, NaHCO3) is used as an effervescent agent in foods and as a cleanser.

Sunday, October 15, 2017

Dimethyl Ketone or Aceton

Aceton Formula
Acetone have formula CH3COCH3 or in science called as 2-propanone or dimethyl-ketone. Acetone commonly use in a fragrant as a solution, colorless and flammable liquid that boils at 56.2 oC and solidifies at – 34.8 oC. Small amounts of acetone are present in blood and urine, but some diabetic patients show larger than normal people.

Diabetic evacuate this excess in urine (acetonuria) and through their lungs. In industry, acetone is an important solvent for cellulose nitrate and cellulose acetate and is also used in the production of explosives material.

Vinegar (Acetic Acid)

Acetic acid have formula CH3COOH is known as acid that use in household as additive agent in cooking recipe and more common says with vinegar. Acetic acid is a weak organic acid and the sour constituent of Vinegar. In industry, acetic acid is produced by the destructive distillation of wood and by the catalytic oxidation of formaldehyde. The pure acid is called glacial acetic acid and is a corrosive, colorless liquid with a pungent smell. It solidity at 16.63 oC. Acetic acid reacts with alcohol to form acetates that are widely used as solvents. Acetic acid also react with cellulose to form cellulose acetate, which is the starting material for rayon industry and other artificial fibers and for photographic film.


Chromic acid include of acid substances, generally refers to a collection of compounds generated by the acidification of solutions containing chromate and dichromate anions or the dissolving of chromium trioxide in sulfuric acid. Often the species are assigned the formulas H2CrO4 and H2Cr2O7. The anhydride of these "chromic acids" is chromium trioxide, also called chromium (VI) oxide; industrially, this compound is sometimes sold as "chromic acid." Chromic acid forms are usually as chromic acid flake or chromic acid powder. Chromic acid flake form usually as technical practice and powder use for analytical purpose.

Sulfuric Acid

Sulfuric acid has the formula of H2SO4. Sulfuric acid is the most important sulfur compound and one of the largest volume industrial chemicals. To produce it by the method known as contact process, sulfur is first burned in air to yield dioxide SO2. The subsequent oxidation of SO2, is slow reaction, therefore a catalytic surface made of platinum or vanadium pentoxide is required. Sulfur trioxide reacts with water to yield sulfuric acid, because the oxide reacts with water to yield sulfuric acid; because the direct reaction of SO2 and water produces a mist of H2SO4 that is difficult to condense, the final stage of production takes place in two steps, SO2 is first dissolved in H2SO4 to produce pyrosulfuric acid; H2SO4, then sulfuric acid is produced by subsequent dilution of H2S2O2 with water:

SO2 + H2SO4 → H2S2O2
H2S2O2 + H2O → 2 H2SO4